By John Calvelli
[Note: This is the fourth in a series of blogs by Calvelli celebrating the history and conservation of the American Bison.]
At a time when lawmakers rarely agree on much, the bison, a quintessentially American mammal, is drawing support from both sides of the aisle in Congress in an increasingly rare example of bipartisan collaboration.
On October 30, 2013, the U.S. Senate passed, by unanimous consent, a resolution officially designating November 2, 2013, as National Bison Day. The resolution earned the bipartisan support of 25 Senators – representing a quarter of the U.S. Senate. In passing the resolution, Democratic and Republican leaders have teamed up with close to 50 diverse groups in an initiative called the Vote Bison Coalition. The group represents bison producers, Native Americans, conservationists, educational institutions, recreationists, zoological institutions, health organizations, and businesses.
U.S. Sens. Michael Enzi (R-WY) and Tim Johnson (D-SD) introduced the resolution in late September, emphasizing the historical, cultural, ecological, and economic significance of the bison to the United States. North America’s largest mammal, a symbol of resilience, has appeared on U.S. currency, the seal of the Department of the Interior, and two state flags. In addition, bison have been adopted as the state mammal of Wyoming and the state animal of Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Among the many attributes of the buffalo – as bison are commonly known – is the role this species has played in the economic and spiritual lives of Native American tribes, many of which are now seeking the restoration of bison to tribal land. Bison also benefit grassland ecosystems and are a symbol of the American West.
The bison once boasted numbers between 30 and 60 million in a range that extended from central Canada to Mexico. However, by the late nineteenth century, the mass slaughter of bison with the settlement of the American West brought the species to the brink of extinction. With only about 1,000 wild and captive bison remaining in North America in 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt; William Hornaday, director of the New York Zoological Society’s (now the Wildlife Conservation Society’s) Bronx Zoo; and others assembled a group of diverse stakeholders to form the American Bison Society to save these great mammals from extinction. Today, there are hundreds of thousands of bison in state and national parks, wildlife refuges, and on tribal and private lands.
The Vote Bison Coalition celebrated the inaugural National Bison Day last November. This year, with growing support from members of the U.S. Congress, a full schedule of events are planned across the nation – with a special recognition of this iconic species in the western states where it continues to roam.
National Bison Day events kicked off with a reception on Capitol Hill this past Wednesday.
Nearly 100 years after the American Bison Society and the New York Zoological Society helped bring bison to Wind Cave National Park, Native Americans will be among the many revelers honoring bison this weekend.
In Kansas, folks celebrating National Bison Day on Saturday will simultaneously observe the start of Native American Heritage Month with fun, educational events including bison artifacts on display and the Winds of the Past exhibit honoring Native Americans at the Flint Hills Discovery Center.
Bison experts will be stationed at informational booths throughout the day at the Buffalo Bill Center of the West in Cody, Wyoming. Patrons can also view the film “American Serengeti” while there.
At the National Buffalo Museum in Jamestown, North Dakota, museum members will receive a 20 percent discount on gift shop purchases (there’s a 10 percent discount for the general public) this Saturday. In neighboring South Dakota, the Museum of the American Bison in Rapid City will feature a buffalo chili cook-off, presentations from bison experts, craft activities and a traditional Native dancer.
Also on Saturday at the Bronx Zoo, a Bronx Zoo bison keeper and Friends of the Zoo docents will be at the bison exhibit teaching patrons about this American icon. These events are also a great opportunity for children to learn about wildlife conservation (to view other upcoming National Bison Day events, visit http://votebison.org/events).
We encourage everyone to mark November 2nd on their calendars as a day to re-connect to this enduring symbol of America’s natural heritage. A quintessentially American mammal, the bison has fortunately brought together Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. Senate, which is no small feat. Now that’s something to celebrate.
John Calvelli is Executive Vice President for Public Affairs at the Wildlife Conservation Society and Chair of the Executive Committee of the International Conservation Partnership (ICP), which is comprised of representatives from the major global U.S. conservation organizations.
The Vote Bison campaign seeks to make the American bison the National Mammal of the United States and celebrate National Bison Day annually on the 1st Saturday of November. Bison, our largest land mammal once ranged from Oregon to New Jersey and Alaska to Mexico and now exist in all 50 states. Bison became a symbol of U.S. frontier culture as the herds inspired awe in western explorers and sustained early settlers and traders. Bison were integrally linked with the economic, physical and spiritual lives of Native Americans; and were central to their sustenance, trade, ceremonies and religious rituals. Men and women from all walks of life, including ranchers, Native Americans, industrialists, and President Theodore Roosevelt initiated a monumental effort to save bison from extinction in 1905. This grassroots campaign to save bison on small refuges in Oklahoma, Montana, and South Dakota served as one of the world’s first successful wildlife restoration effort.
Bison as the National Mammal
Bison are an American icon. Bison are profiled on coins, depicted on the Department of the Interiors seal, and featured on logos of sports teams, businesses, and academic institutions. Three states have designated bison as their official state mammal or animal. Adoption as the National Mammal would celebrate bison’s special place in our national heritage, as well as the contributions bison make to American life now and will for centuries to come.
Bison are an important animal in many sectors of modern American life. Bison continue to sustain and provide cultural value to Native Americans and Indian Tribes. More than 60 tribes are working to restore bison to over 1,000,000 acres of Indian lands in places like South Dakota, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Montana. Bison production on private ranches is in its strongest economic condition in more than a decade. The total value of privately-owned bison on more than 4,000 bison ranches in the U.S. was estimated to exceed $280 million in 2012. This trend bodes well for bison ranches in states like South Dakota, Nebraska, Texas, Colorado, North Dakota and Montana, which create jobs, provide a sustainable and healthy meat source, and contribute to our nation’s food security.
Bison provide enjoyment and education to millions of visitors who recreate in America’s great outdoors. And, tourists eager to view both public and private bison herds contribute to the economies of rural communities. Bison herds for public enjoyment and use are found on state and federal lands including Yellowstone National Park, Wind Cave National Park, Custer State Park, Caprock Canyon State Park, and Wichita Mountains National Wildlife Refuge.